Relations Between Causal Attributions for Stuttering and Psychological Well-Being in Adults who Stutter

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Purpose: This study attempted to understand the relationship between causal attributions for stuttering and psychological well-being in adults who stutter. Method: The study employed a cross-sectional design using a web survey distribution mode to gain information related to causal attributions and psychological well-being of 348 adults who stutter. Correlation analyses were conducted to determine relationships between participants' causal attributions (i.e. locus of causality, external control, personal control, stability, biological attributions, non-biological attributions) for stuttering and various measures of psychological well-being including self-stigma, self-esteem/self-efficacy, hope, anxiety and depression. Result: Results indicated that higher perceptions of external control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy and higher ratings of anxiety and depression. Higher perceptions of personal control of stuttering were related to significantly lower ratings of self-stigma and higher ratings of hope and self-esteem/self-efficacy. Increased biological attributions were significantly related to higher ratings of permanency and unchangeableness of stuttering and lower ratings of personal control of stuttering. Conclusion: The findings demonstrate the importance of instilling a sense of control in PWS regarding their ability to manage their stuttering. Findings also raise questions regarding the benefits of educating PWS about the biological underpinnings of stuttering.



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