Classroom Test Construction: The Power of a Table of Specifications

Document Type


Publication Date


Journal / Book Title

Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation


Classroom tests provide teachers with essential information used to make decisions about instruction and student grades. A table of specification (TOS) can be used to help teachers frame the decision making process of test construction and improve the validity of teachers' evaluations based on tests constructed for classroom use. In this article we explain the purpose of a TOS and how to use it to help construct classroom tests.

Published Citation

Fives, H., & DiDonato-Barnes, N. (2013). Classroom test construction: The power of a table of specifications. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 18(1), 3.