Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


College of Science and Mathematics


Mathematical Sciences

Thesis Sponsor/Dissertation Chair/Project Chair

Aihua Li

Committee Member

Baojun Song

Committee Member

Bogdan G. Nita


Magic squares


This work is dedicated to the properties of the 3 × 3 magic squares of cubes modulo a prime number. Its central concept is the number of distinct entries of these squares and the properties associated with this number. We call this number the degree of a magic square. The necessary conditions for the magic square of cubes with degrees 3, 5, 7, and 9 are examined. It was established that there are infinitely many primes for which magic squares of cubes with degrees 3, 5, 7, and 9 exist. I apply n-tuples of consecutive cubic residues to prove that there are infinitely many Magic Squares of Cubes with degree 9. Furthermore I use Brauer’s theorem, that guarantees the existence of a sequence of consecutive integers of any length, to construct Magic Squares of Cubes whose entries are all cubic residues. Such analytic tools as Modular Arithmetic, Legendre symbol, Fermat’s Little Theorem, notions of quadratic and cubic residues were employed in the process of research.

Included in

Mathematics Commons



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