The Effects of Incorporating Sprouted and Non-Sprouted Chickpea Flour in Pasta Products Upon Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Acceptability, In-Vivo Flow-Mediated Dilation, and In-Vitro TEAC Analysis
Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
College of Education and Human Services
Nutrition and Food Studies
Thesis Sponsor/Dissertation Chair/Project Chair
Chickpea, Chickpea--Preharvest sprouting, Pasta products--Sensory evaluation, Antioxidants, Semolina
Chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) is used in various products in the pasta industry. Amongst the numerous processing methods for chickpeas, sprouting increases chickpeas antioxidant content, nutrient bioavailability, and removes unwanted inhibitors. Consuming antioxidants has shown to positively impact endothelial function, which is related to atherosclerosis prevention. PURPOSE: To explore the antioxidant potential of chickpeas, to explore how chickpea antioxidants are absorbed in the body, and to assess whether chickpea pasta is appealing to a consumer and sensory panel. METHODS: 108 healthy adults undertook a randomized sample consumer assessment of the likeability of 10 different pasta samples based on appearance, texture, flavor, and overall quality. The samples involved sprouted chickpea flour (SCF) and non-sprouted chickpea flour (NSCF) combined with semolina flour in a range of concentrations (0 %, 20 %, 40%), and all possible blends were evaluated for two different pasta shapes (fusilli and rigatoni); a total of 10 samples. Moreover, eight trained individuals participated in a descriptive analysis and assessed the pasta samples based on: chewiness, mushiness, overall strength of aftertaste, earthiness, pasta flavor, saltiness, sweetness, bitterness, strength of smell, and grittiness. Antioxidant potential was also assessed using Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay for seven samples (SCF and NSCF concentrations of 0 %, 20 %, 40%, and 100%). Moreover, healthy participants participated in a randomized, crossover, controlled meal study on two different days. Participants ingested 255.15 grams of pasta with 21.27 grams of butter. The experimental visit involved 40% sprouted chickpea flour and 60% semolina flour; the control visit involved 100% semolina flour. RESULTS: The consumer assessment results showed that the addition of sprouted chickpea to semolina did not show significance in overall or willingness to purchase (p > 0.05). The descriptive analysis results showed that sprouted chickpea pasta had a significant increase on the pasta’s earthiness, aftertaste, bitterness, grittiness, and a decrease effect on the pasta’s pasta flavor. TEAC analysis showed the 100% SCF to have the highest antioxidant potential whereas unenriched semolina flour showed the lowest antioxidant potential (p < 0.05). Both 40% SCF and 40% NSCF had significantly greater antioxidant potential compared to unenriched semolina flour (USF) (p < 0.05). Flow Mediated dilation (FMD) was improved following the sprouted chickpea pasta (10.28±1.19%) than the semolina pasta (7.87± 0.81%, p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results indicated that fractional substitution of semolina flour with NSCF or SCF produces a pasta that is appealing to consumers and improves in-vitro and in-vivo antioxidant potential.
Bruno, Joseph Adam, "The Effects of Incorporating Sprouted and Non-Sprouted Chickpea Flour in Pasta Products Upon Sensory Characteristics, Consumer Acceptability, In-Vivo Flow-Mediated Dilation, and In-Vitro TEAC Analysis" (2017). Theses, Dissertations and Culminating Projects. 363.