Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)


College of Humanities and Social Sciences



Thesis Sponsor/Dissertation Chair/Project Chair

Kevin Askew

Committee Member

Kenneth Sumner

Committee Member

Sally Grapin


Football for children--Attitudes, Football injuries--Risk factors--Psychological aspects, Behaviorism (Psychology) , Brain--Concussion


Youth football participation numbers have seen a decline in recent years, with many believing that the risk of head injury is to blame for the decrease. One step to reversing the decline in participation is to understand why fewer children are participating in football. Using an augmented version of the Theory of Planned Behavior, this study looked at the predictors of parents' intentions to allow their children to participate in football. It was hypothesized that in addition to attitudes, social norms, and behavioral control, perceived concussion risk would be a predictor of intention to allow football participation. An online survey was developed and taken by 491 parents of children age 18 and younger.

As hypothesized, there were four significant predictors of intention to allow football participation: attitude toward youth football participation, social norms, behavioral control, and perceived risk of concussion in football. The findings of this study provide a better understanding of parents’ decision making when considering youth football participation. These results provide a theoretical platform for interventions to promote youth sport participation and to reverse the decline in football participation.

File Format


Included in

Psychology Commons