Document Type


Publication Date


Journal / Book Title

The Urban Review


The purpose of this investigation is to examine heterogeneity and membership with subgroups of cognitive empowerment among youth of color. Within this heterogeneity, this study hopes to identify the relationship each of these subgroups of youth have with conceptually related variables including intrapersonal psychological empowerment, psychological sense of community (SOC), and ethnic identity. The participants were 383 urban youth of color in grades 9 through 12. The results showed significant variation between profile groups of youth and the association higher levels of cognitive empowerment have with intrapersonal psychological empowerment, psychological SOC, and ethnic identity; albeit, some variation was present. This study is explorative in nature and an effort to highlight the complexity of empowerment and cognitive empowerment. Findings are significant as these outcomes provide valuable insight into the intricacies of cognitive empowerment and highlight the importance of youth experiencing high levels of cognitive empowerment on domains related to civic engagement and critical awareness.



Published Citation

Lardier, D. T., Garcia-Reid, P., & Reid, R. J. (2019). The examination of cognitive empowerment dimensions on intrapersonal psychological empowerment, psychological sense of community, and ethnic identity among urban youth of color. The Urban Review, 51(5), 768-788.