Employee Shareholders Or Institutional Investors? When Corporate Managers Replace Their Stockholders

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During the past decade, the shares of publicly traded companies moved increas-ingly into the hands of institutional investors. As large investors pressed companies to restructure, companies were observed in turn to restructure their shareholder base. Drawing on a 1989 survey of 761 US publicly traded companies, firms facing a hostile takeover environment or with large institutional holdings are found to seek greater employee stockholding. Large firms and those that had adopted takeover defences are more likely when threatened with takeovers or short-term pressures to seek more employee and less institutional stockholding. Though managers are employed by owners, investor efforts to disci-pline their managers can lead the latter to replace the former.

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