Document Type


Publication Date


Journal / Book Title

Psychology and Marketing


The customer cooperation level in behavior change programs (e.g., weight‐loss programs, alcohol‐quitting programs, and debt management programs) is low, which leads to a low program success rate. To address this problem, this study draws on the goal‐driven behavior theory and develops a theoretical framework to explain how goal intention, and behavioral appraisal processes influence the subsequent cooperation behaviors, which, in turn, influence customers’ goal attainment. A two‐wave longitudinal survey was used to test the theoretical model. Results show that customers’ appraisals of the cooperation behaviors play a vital role in influencing customers’ cooperation behaviors. Three appraisal factors (self‐efficacy, instrumental belief, and affect toward cooperation behaviors) fully mediate the relationship between goal intention and cooperation. Customer cooperation contributes directly to goal attainment. Both theoretical and managerial implications are provided.


Published Citation

Zhang, J., Tang, C., Guo, L., & Xu, H. (2018). A longitudinal investigation of customer cooperation in services: The role of appraisal of cooperation behaviors. Psychology & Marketing, 35(12), 957-967.