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In this study, we were interested in exploring the extent to which advanced mathematics lecturers provide students opportunities to play a role in considering or generating course content. To do this, we examined the questioning practices of 11 lecturers who taught advanced mathematics courses at the university level. Because we are unaware of other studies examining advanced mathematics lecturers’ questioning, we first analyzed the data using an open coding scheme to categorize the types of content lecturers solicited and the opportunities they provided students to participate in generating course content. In a second round of analysis, we examined the extent to which lecturers provide students opportunities to generate mathematical contributions and to engage in reasoning researchers have identified as important in advanced mathematics. Our findings highlight that although lecturers asked many questions, lecturers did not provide substantial opportunities for students to participate in generating mathematical content and reasoning. Additionally, we provide several examples of lecturers providing students some opportunities to generate important contributions. We conclude by providing implications and areas for future research.


This is a pre-peer-review, pre-copyedit version of an article published in Educational Studies in Mathematics. The final authenticated version is available online at:

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Paoletti, T., Krupnik, V., Papadopoulos, D. et al. Educ Stud Math (2018) 98: 1.

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Mathematics Commons