Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 6-12-2013

Journal / Book Title

ISRN Nutrition


The type of gift bags given to new mothers at the time of discharge from the hospital can influence their confidence in breastfeeding. Most hospitals in the US continue to distribute commercial gift bags containing formula samples despite the reported negative influence of commercial bags on the duration of breastfeeding. This study compared breastfeeding outcomes in women receiving three different kinds of gift bags at discharge. A prospective intervention study was conducted during the 2009-2010 in New Jersey. Three breastfeeding cohorts were recruited and assigned to three groups: COMMERCIAL received discharge bags containing formula samples, BF-INFO received breastfeeding information and supplies, and PUMP received breastfeeding information/supplies plus a manual breast pump. Follow-up contacts were at 2, 4, and 12 postpartum weeks to determine breastfeeding outcome. The mean duration of exclusive (EBF) and partial breastfeeding were compared between groups using ANOVA. A total of 386 participants completed the study. The mean EBF duration (weeks) in the PUMP (n=138, 8+/-4.86 ) and BF-INFO (n=121, 7.87+/-4.63) were significantly longer (P<0.01) than COMMERCIAL (n=127, 6.12+/-4.49). The rate of EBF through 12 weeks in PUMP was most consistent. The mean duration of partial breastfeeding showed similar results: significantly longer in PUMP and BF-INFO than COMMERCIAL (P<0.01).



Published Citation

Bai, Yeon, Shahla M. Wunderlich, and Rickie Kashdan. "Alternative hospital gift bags and breastfeeding exclusivity." ISRN nutrition 2013 (2013).