Document Type


Publication Date

Summer 6-17-2016

Journal / Book Title

Women's Health Issues



Breastfeeding is frequently described as a woman's decision, yet this choice is often illusionary owing to suboptimal social and structural supports. Despite the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010) that requires all qualifying employers to provide mothers “reasonable” break time and a private, non-bathroom space to express breast milk, the majority of women in the United States still do not have access to both accommodations.

The Problem

At least three issues may be influencing this suboptimal implementation at workplaces: 1) federal law does not address lactation space functionality and accessibility, 2) federal law only protects a subset of employees, and 3) enforcement of the federal law requires women to file a complaint with the United States Department of Labor.


To address each of these issues, we recommend the following modifications to current law: 1) additional requirements surrounding lactation space and functionality, 2) mandated coverage of exempt employees, and 3) requirement that employers develop company-specific lactation policies.


If the goal is to give women a real choice of whether to continue breastfeeding after returning to work, we must provide the proper social and structural supports that will allow for a truly personal decision. No mother should have to choose between breastfeeding her child and earning a paycheck.



Published Citation

Dinour, Lauren M., and Yeon K. Bai. "Breastfeeding: The illusion of choice." Women's Health Issues 26, no. 5 (2016): 479-482.