Document Type


Publication Date


Journal / Book Title

Wake Forest Law Review


Increasing economic globalization has coincided with the emergence and escalating influence of non-state actors and organizations in domestic and international policymaking, from shaping policy agendas to promoting private authority. The latter phenomenon has arisen, at least in part, from a critique of states' failures to adopt effective and enduring environmental policies. Rather than contest "command and control" institutions, non-state strategies embrace market approaches built around incentives and price mechanisms. Several forms of non-state authority have emerged, including corporate social responsibility, provision of information through labeling, and self-reporting.

Book Publisher

Wake Forest Law Review Association, Inc.

Journal ISSN / Book ISBN


Published Citation

Levin, Kelly, Benjamin Cashore, and Jonathan Koppell. "Can non-state certification systems bolster state-centered efforts to promote sustainable development through the clean development mechanism." Wake Forest L. Rev. 44 (2009): 777.