Document Type


Publication Date

Winter 2-2005

Journal / Book Title

Educational and Psychological Measurement


This study tested the longitudinal factorial invariance of a theoretically consistent, higher-order model for Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scores among adolescent girls and boys in middle school. Data were collected from 2,416 adolescents who completed a survey containing the CES-D in the fall of 1998, spring of 1999, and spring of 2000. The invariance analyses were conducted using LISREL 8.50 with maximum likelihood estimation and the Satorra-Bentler scaled chi-square statistic and standard errors. The higher-order model demonstrated longitudinal, as well as gender, invariance of the overall factor structure and first- and second-order structure coefficients, first-order factor variances, second-order factor variances, and covariances, and item uniquenesses. The results demonstrate that meaningful comparisons of composite CES-D scores can be made across time among girls and boys in middle school.


Published Citation

Motl, Robert W., Rod K. Dishman, Amanda S. Birnbaum, and Leslie A. Lytle. "Longitudinal invariance of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale among girls and boys in middle school." Educational and Psychological Measurement 65, no. 1 (2005): 90-108. Harvard