Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 5-26-2019

Journal / Book Title

The Prison Journal


Formerly incarcerated Black males face many barriers once they return to society after incarceration. Research has long established incarceration as a determinant of poor health and well-being. While research has shown that legally created barriers (e.g., employment, housing, and social services) are often a challenge post-incarceration, far less is known of Black male’s daily experiences of reentry. Utilizing critical ethnography and semi-structured interviews with formerly incarcerated Black males in a Northeastern community, this study examines the challenges Black males experience post-incarceration.


Published Citation

Williams, Jason M., Sean K. Wilson, and Carrie Bergeson. "'It’s hard out here if you’re a Black felon”: A critical examination of Black male reentry." The Prison Journal 99, no. 4 (2019): 437-458.