Document Type


Publication Date


Journal / Book Title

Substance use & misuse


Background and objectives: Adolescents in foster care are at high risk for cigarette smoking. However, it is not clear how their smoking behaviors vary by gender. The present study examined lifetime and current smoking among males and females, and explored gender-specific risk factors for engagement in smoking behaviors. Method: Data from the Multi Site Evaluation of Foster Youth Programs was used to evaluate patterns of smoking among adolescents aged 12–18 years (N = 1121; 489 males, 632 females). Results: Males and females did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and current smoking, or in the age of smoking initiation and number of cigarettes smoked on a typical day. Gender-based analyses revealed that older age and placement in group homes or residential treatment facilities were associated with heightened risk of smoking among males. In contrast, sexual minority status (i.e., nonheterosexual orientation) and increased childhood victimization were associated with heightened risk of smoking among females. A history of running away was linked to smoking in both genders. Conclusion: Gender should be considered when designing intervention programs to address cigarette smoking among foster youth, as the stressors associated with smoking may differ for males and females.



Published Citation

Shpiegel, S., Sussman, S., Sherman, S. E., & El Shahawy, O. (2017). Smoking behaviors among adolescents in foster care: a gender-based analysis. Substance use & misuse, 52(11), 1469-1477.

Included in

Social Work Commons