Document Type


Publication Date


Journal / Book Title

Journal of health psychology


This study investigated the relationship of medical and non-medical fears to children's anxiety, pain, and distress during an invasive medical procedure, the voiding cystourethrogram. Parents of 34 children completed the Fear Survey Schedule-II prior to their child's procedure. Child distress behaviors during the procedure were audiotaped and coded using the Child-Adult Medical Procedure Interaction Scale-Revised. Ratings of child procedural anxiety and pain were obtained from children, parents, and examining technologists within minutes following the procedure. Associations were observed between medical fears, procedural anxiety (parent and staff reports), and coded distress behaviors. Findings may inform preparation efforts to reduce anxiety around invasive medical procedures.



Published Citation

Fox, J. K., Halpern, L. F., Dangman, B. C., Giramonti, K. M., & Kogan, B. A. (2016). Children’s anxious reactions to an invasive medical procedure: The role of medical and non-medical fears. Journal of health psychology, 21(8), 1587-1596.

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