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The effect of color on the expected and experienced refreshment, intensity, and liking of lemon, mint, and vanilla beverages was studied. Subjects rated the expected and actual taste of brown lemon and mint solutions as less refreshing than the tastes of differently colored solutions of the same flavor. However, the refreshment ratings (expected and actual) of the brown vanilla beverage were not different from those of the vanilla beverages of other colors. Liking ratings also depended on color in a manner similar to that of the refreshment ratings. Intensity ratings also varied with color. However, unlike when subjects smell solutions rather than taste them, colored solutions were not judged as more intense than colorless ones. In fact, the clear solutions were judged as strongest.



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Zellner, D. A., & Durlach, P. (2003). Effect of color on expected and experienced refreshment, intensity, and. Am. J. Psychol, 116, 633-647.

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