Temporal Invariance for Picture-Word Translation: Evidence from Drawing-Writing and Naming-Reading Tasks

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In two experiments, picture-word processing was investigated using graphic (drawing-writing) and verbal (naming-reading) production tasks. In both experiments, the subjects drew a picture or wrote a word upon presentation of a picture or a word stimulus. Additionally, the subjects in Experiment 2 named a picture or read a word stimulus. Production onset latency was assessed. In both experiments, drawing production was initiated more slowly than was writing production. In Experiment 2, graphic production was initiated more slowly than was verbal production. Equivalent latency increases were found for cross-modality trials (e.g., drawing a picture given a word stimulus) relative to within-modality trials (e.g., drawing a picture given a picture stimulus), independent of stimulus modality (word or picture), production modality (word or picture), or task (graphic or verbal production). These results strongly support a mathematical model which incorporates temporal invariance for pictures and words concerning encoding, cross-modality transfer, and retrieval.



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